PHYLOGENY

 

Phylogeny and taxonomy of Glomeromycota ('arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and related fungi')

Adopted from the December 2010 published revision and species list (published in international libraries and also freely availabe as an online copy (Schüßler and Walker 2010) and as a printed copy, including a 'corrigendum') with taxonomic changes in the Glomerales (based on the characterisation of the Glomus type species, Glomus macrocarpum), Diversporales (erection of new genus Redeckera, several former Glomus species transferred to Diversispora), and Archaeosporales (synonymisation of Intraspora with Archaeospora).

'The study of plants without their mycorrhizas is the study of artefacts. The majority of plants, strictly speaking, do not have roots; they have mycorrhizas.'
BEG-Committee, 25th May 1993


In the taxonomy section you find the recent taxonomy and sytematics of AM fungi, including links to Index Fungorum (we are collaborating with) and NCBI taxonomy (not necessarily up to date for all database entries). Here is a link to the list of authors of fungal names.

In the species list links to pdf-files of formal descriptions and emendations are provided.  Under 'downloads' you find some supplementary material (alignments, etc.).


Phylogenetic trees (based on SSU rDNA sequences, click on titles to jump to trees):

3) Phylogenetic tree (SSU rRNA gene, near full length sequences) implementing the most recent changes in the taxonomy and classification of the Glomeromycota (Schüßler and Walker 2010). Some frequently studied 'model species' are shown with their new names, in a 'natural' (phylogeny based) classification. For example, the model AM fungus 'Glomus versiforme BEG47' is Diversispora epigaea BEG47 and 'Glomus intraradices DAOM197198' is Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM197198.
We want to mention, that these changes are the result of a relatively conservative attempt. We tried to only introduce changes absolutely necessary and keep the number of new taxa as low as possible. However, mis-identifications and mis-synonymisations that had never been investigated in detail before needed to be corrected, and our long proposed (Schwarzott et al. 2001) split of the Glomerales was now necessary, to base research on AM fungi on an evolutionary framework. The anchoring of the genus Glomus could only very recently be fixed by culturing and characterising its generic type species, Glomus macrocarpum. At the moment Glomus is monospecific, but from environmental sequencing it is evident that it is a diverse group (which corresponds to former Glomus
Group Ac).

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2) New classification of the Diversisporales (2004). The new families Pacisporaceae and Diversisporaceae contain species formerly described as 'Glomus'. The numbers above the branch show the support (NJ,MP,ML,ML-QP analysis, respectively) of the sister-group relationship of Pacisporaceae (= Gerdemanniaceae) and Gigasporaceae, see: Walker C, Blaszkowski L, Schwarzott D, Schüßler A (2004) Gerdemannia gen. nov., a genus separated from Glomus, and Gerdemanniaceae fam. nov., a new family in the Glomeromycota. Mycological Research 108(6): 707-718 [full text paper is linked from the 'species list']; Walker C, Schüßler A (2004) Nomenclatural clarifications and new taxa in the Glomeromycota. Mycological Research 108: 981-982 [full text paper is linked from the 'species list'].

A remark: A paper describing the genus Gerdemannia and the family Gerdemanniaceae was submitted while the same genus was described as Pacispora (erroneously placed in the Glomeraceae). This happened despite the authors of Pacispora knew that we were in process of publishing Gerdemannia (by a public talk and email) before both publications were submitted. We did not know anything about their intention to describe the same group of fungi. Despite the evidence of the need for a different higher taxon placing, we were not informed by any plans to publish the same genus under a different name, until the Pacispora paper was in press and announced as such, by email. At that point our Gerdemannia paper was also in press, and could not be withdrawn any more (we tried to do so!). We are sorry for any inconvenience, but from our side everything that could have avoided this parallel description was communicated, so this was just not in our hands. We could not even modify our paper by changing the taxon names by a note added in proof (to adopt to the Pacispora paper nomenclature), because the Pacispora authors did not even agree to show us their manuscript when it was in press. Therefore, the Pacispora paper was published shortly before Gerdemannia, and therefore the genus name Gerdemannia is a later synonym of Pacispora and the latter takes precedence.
Consequently, Pacispora is the correct generic name to be used for the former Glomus scintillans, G. dominikii, G. chimonobambusae, and similar organisms, see:
Walker C, Schüßler A (2004) Nomenclatural clarifications and new taxa in the Glomeromycota. Mycological Research 108: 981-982 [full text paper linked from the 'species list'].

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1) Phylogenetic tree of AM fungi with focus on the non-monoyphyletic 'genus' Glomus (2001), already indicating the structure (different Glomus Groups in different families) recently formalised in Schüßler and Walker (2010). Schwarzott D, Walker C, Schüßler A (2001) Glomus, the largest genus of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomales), is non-monophyletic. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 21: 190-197 Abstract, 'downloads'

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